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  3. Water management techniques
    Rural based:
    1.nature based solutions:use flood plain water and conserve them
    2.use micro irrigation techniques
    3.promote wetlands wherever available
    4.use biofertilizers such as neem coated urea,vermicompost ferilizers as much as possible
    5.adopt better agricultural methods for sustainable agriculture such as avoiding terrace farming,shifting culture,better techniques for paddy production such as can be learned from madagascar i.e. ,system of rice intensification(sri);bangladesh dry direct seeding method
    Urban based:
    1.Efficient use of water:the urban households use water in abundance as it is available to them.They should show some accountability and use water efficiently by
    reusing the distilled water from air conditioners in inverter ,repairing the leakages ,use buckets instead of shower,use water efficient toilets
    2.Awareness:curbing leakages on own wherever possible
    3.Setting up organized groups for planting trees and rainwater harvesting and set up drain of excess fresh water from every house hold to water supply reserviours
    Governement based
    1.Infrastructure setup for recharging of ground water by rain water
    2. Implementation of stringent norms for factories discharging waste in water bodies
    3. Use nature based solution to ensure clean water supply and biodiversity conservation
    4.Providing subsidies to famers so they can buy modern machines and better seeds
    5.Implementing river cleaning programs properly to protect the rivers and our heritages as well.

  4. 1)United nations Observed March 22 as a World Water Day Theme of 2018 is ‘Nature for Water’ – exploring nature-based solutions to the water challenges we face in the 21st century.

    The world’s population is expected to increase from 7.6 billion (2017) to between 9.4 and 10.2 billion people (2050),An estimated 3.6 billion people now live in areas that could face water scarcity for at least a month in a year, with that number increasing to 4.8 and 5.7 billion by 2050.
    Conserving the water should be included in fundamental duties of citizens.

    Required measures : Every drop counts
    Conservation of water at home and by the community.
    1)Avoid leakage of taps nearly it costs about 10,000 liters every year.
    2)Turning off the water while brushing your teeth or shaving.
    3)Stop polluting rivers,lakes and Ponds.

    Conservation of water by farmers.
    1)Sustainable way of doing agriculture nearly 80% of drinking water can be used for agriculture, by adopting technology based solutions, Properly installed drip irrigation can save up to 80 percent more water than conventional irrigation.
    2)Change in the crop Pattern.
    3)Using of good quality water Pipes to avoid unnecessary leakage,Storing of rain water.

    Conserve water by govt.
    Establishing policy principles like,innovative technologies, implementation strategies for water
    and wastewater management to help lay the foundations for a water- and waste-prudent society. .

    *Monsoon Rain water harvesting,storing the water in ponds,increase the aquifer yields to recover the ground water levels,
    interlinking of rivers.

    2)Pyramidal Peak.

    3)Rift Valley.

  5. Water management system: Rainwater should be reserve in the tanks and make use of it. Effective policy should be prepared for the use of water available in the lakes, ponds , rivers, wells etc.So that disputes between the states don't arise for water sharing. Leakage of water should be minimised because it is such a wastage of water. Better technologies are adopted like that if Israel to convert river water into fresh water. Drip irrigation system should be efficiently implemented. Monsoon rainfall water should be reserved in the big tanks and make use of the water for various purposes such as : feeding to the plants etc.

  6. Q1) According to the World Banks Water Scarce Report there is a shortage of water from different cities all over the world like Cape Town, Bengaluru. This is sign of alarming situation that the world is going to face water scarcity very soon. So there is an urgent need of the proper management and efficient utilisation of water. So, the following measures can help in the water management.
    a) Water Harvesting Method- help in recharging of aquifers;
    b) The need of technological advancement like drip irrigation, mulching, sprinklers which will curb the over-exploitation of water resources during irrigation.
    c) Recycle and reuse of water- waste water Treatment before discharging into the river or any other water body.
    d) Water Pollution need to checked- example Namami Gange Programme, Swachh Bharat Mission.
    f) Development of Scientific temperament
    g) Afforestation and Integrated Watershed management
    h) Revival of lake, ponds which can act water storage devices.

    Q2) Matterhorn in Switzerland is an example of Pyramidal Peak is a part of Alps Mountain.
    Q3) Red Sea is an example of Rift Valley.

  7. 1)
    Water-a super liquid matter that sustains trillions of lifefroms on this heavenly planet. It's been once upon a time which had its definition as "the tasteless, odourless, and nearly colourless chemical substance that's available from diverse water bodies of this planet-The Earth". But now, we need to rephrase it's definition for our future generation(s) as "the tasteful, the odour rich, and mostly coloured chemical substance with incorporated chemicals that's allegedly available from some rare pre-existed water bodies of this planet".

    As and when we discuss about water management, the very first thing which pops up right in front of us is it's efficient usage in agriculture and household. But, it's high time to acknowledge that we are far from what our prospective approach ought to be. "Chopping-off a sampling with bare-hand is so facile than girdling a woody one". As education in most of the western world states teaches children at lower grades about their laws and traffic rules which yield responsible citizens on roads( with exception being exempted), in a similarly way, educating the children at very early stages of their primary  and nourishing the same throughout their higher grades would yield fruitful outcomes. Children ought to be made to believe that "as blood sustains human existence, so does the water to earth".

    Politically mooted statements disclose that India performs 'zero' when it comes to farmer deaths where the real facts get eclipsed. The Sustainable Development Goal-6(SDG-6) ensures "availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation to all", which is due by 2030. Taking it into consideration, the union govt. has brought the mission-'Swachh Bharat'. No doubt that the mission had brought some understanding of cleanliness among the people but the govt. itself seems to neglect the 'availability and sustainable management' part of the goal and concentrate just on the 'sanitation to all' part of it. Far from just constructing toilets, people must be inculcated with behavioural changes of using the toilets rather just having one and also educating the conservation of freshwater and make sure it's not been used for/in the toilet constructed.

    Achieving SDG-6 not just serve a position for India in world forum but also proliferates the yield of the farm sector and thereby economy. 

    It's a moment to celebrate on knowing that India achieved the initial targets and infact beyond the ceiling in case of 'one nation, one tax' but it is to be remembered that a nation grows not just by collecting taxes but also by ensuring  viable conditions to country's backbone- The Farmers and The Diverse Heritage.
    Corrections, criticisms welcomed.
    Copyrights claimable 😋
    Cheers !

  8. 1) water management :
    for a proper management we can reuse all the waste water from industries and agricultural wastes instead of draining it into the ponds and rivers, by using environmental biotechnology process where the waste water is treated with bacteria and it is reused for agriculture and other industrial wastes this process is more exclusive in Israli country.
    we need to construct small check dams, watershed management, lagoons for a particular area for preservation of water.
    most importantly each and every individual need to work because water is for every living things a particular person nor government can help it out.

  9. Water management:
    It is the activity of planning, developing and distributing optimum water resources. The IMD of ministry of Earth sciences forecasted a normal monsoon or 89cm of 97% of the long period average.
    Now the forecast has been given and it is every citizen of India's responsibility to save water like recently famous star Amirkaan came out with satyamave jayate water club with an army of 1 lakh jal mitras to set up water harvesting projects in Maharashtra.
    2. Rain water harvesting is the best way, because rain is a natural source and many people can also afford it or we can ask our college or school officials to do so.
    3.cleaning lakes and rivers can be more useful with upcoming monsoons.
    4 . issuing notices to people and awareness to youngsters about rain water harvesting can also be a solution .
    5.social media can also play a big part by leading stars insisting on the need to save water like the recent one's like TN jallikatu protest, kathua rape case and so on

  10. Water is one of the life giving element on our planet, blessed by nature. Interestingly, since the formation of earth, quantity of water has not changed even by a single drop, but it's forms keep on changing.
    Main issue is of fresh water. Only 2.5% of total water is fresh water. Out of it only 0.3% is in liquid form. India accommodates 16% world population with only 4% freshwater resources of the world. Thus our rational and wise use of water can solve many present day problems and save our next generations too.
    We have to work on both micro and macro levels.
    As responsible citizen, we have to use water cautiously while bathing, brushing, washing hands, clothes etc. At the same time, we need to take small quantity of water repeatedly as required to drink to save it from getting left over to be wasted. Water RO machines outlet water in the process of filtration, same can be stored and used. Attitude and behavioural changes
    can help. Social media and
    awareness has vast role to spread the message.
    At macro level, issues are different
    river water is over extracted for
    use of cities, industries and
    Agriculture. River's floodplain areas that are formed over long period of time act as natural self sustaining water aquifer. They can be utilised but it's over use must not be allowed to save it.
    Ours is monsoon type of climate. It is bliss for us. Ironically, meghalaya know for highest rainfall in the world, has to face water shortage due to lack of conservation facilities n efforts.
    On the other hand, jaiselmer, where rainfall is minimal, has fantastic conventional method of water conservation like jhalara, bandhi, bawdi and tanka etc.
    For agriculture, dripping irrigation, irrigation scheduling, mulch and compost, dry farming and watershed development provide some magical solutions.
    Afforestation and grey water recycling are new hopes.
    National water mission, Namami Ganga, Atal bhujal yojana are welcoming steps.
    Water management is need of hour. This is to be done from individual to international level for sake of not only humanity but for every single living being.

    Q2- 3
    Q3- 2


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