Locomotion and Movement for NEET | Part 6 | Vertebral column - Videos

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Our vertebral column is formed by 26 serially arranged units called
vertebrae and is dorsally placed. It extends from the base of the skull and constitutes the main framework of the trunk. Each vertebra has a central hollow portion (neural canal) through
which the spinal cord passes. First vertebra is the atlas and it articulates with the occipital condyles. The vertebral column is differentiated into cervical (7), thoracic (12), lumbar (5), sacral
(1-fused) and coccygeal (1-fused) regions starting from the skull. The number of cervical vertebrae are seven in almost all mammals
including human beings. The vertebral column protects the spinal cord, supports the head and serves as the point of attachment for the ribs and musculature of the back. Sternum is a flat bone on the ventral midline of thorax.There are 12 pairs of ribs. Each rib is a
thin flat bone connected dorsally to the vertebral column and ventrally to the sternum. It has two articulation surfaces on its dorsal end and is hence called bicephalic. First seven pairs of ribs are called true ribs. Dorsally, they are attached to the thoracic vertebrae and ventrally connected to the sternum with the
help of hyaline cartilage. The 8th, 9th and 10th pairs of ribs do not articulate directly with the sternum but join the seventh rib with the help of hyaline cartilage. These are called vertebrochondral (false) ribs. Last 2 pairs (11th and 12th) of ribs are not connected ventrally
and are therefore, called floating ribs. Thoracic vertebrae, ribs and sternum together form the rib cage (Figure 20.8). The bones of the limbs alongwith their girdles constitute the appendicular skeleton.
Each limb is made of 30 bones. The bones of the hand (fore limb) are humerus, radius and ulna, carpals (wrist bones – 8 in number),
metacarpals (palm bones – 5 in number) and phalanges (digits – 14 in number). Femur (thigh bone – the longest bone), tibia and fibula, tarsals (ankle bones – 7 in number), metatarsals (5 in number) and phalanges (digits – 14 in number) are the bones of the legs (hind limb). A cup shaped bone called patella cover the knee ventrally (knee cap).
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